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Cuvinte-cheie: centură de siguranţă, rezistenţă la tensiune, produse multistrat Investigation of multi-layered woven car seatbelts with optimum performance This work was aimed to study the mechanical properties of multilayered woven automobile seatbelt by varying the weave design, fabric density and material.

Three layered woven webs were produced in three different weaves twill, matt and combination of plain and matt named here as combo. The webs were produced either in polyester, Polyamide Nylon or by using combination of both.

The effect of actual thread density and fabric areal densityon the breaking strength of seatbelt was found. Finally, a low cost seat belt having minimum fabric areal density and optimum strength was proposed.

By reducing the actual force of dating elkington silver plate impacts, seatbelts limit the risks of death as well as severe traumas in an accident. It also keeps the driver being ejected from the automobile dating elkington silver plate a collision or when the car rolls over [1].

Seatbelts are really easy to apply, efficient and cheap way of safeguard in case of accidents. These belts are usually jacquard woven webs 48 mm wide [2]. The pattern of warp and weft and their response in case of loading or impact is responsible for wearer protection.

Seatbelts are equipped with a load limiting lucky star dating, a pre-tensioner and a D-ring which helps in reeling out of the belt from the retractor [3, 4]. Seatbelt works on the principle of Dating elkington silver plate s law of inertia: Dating elkington silver plate physical object at rest will remain dezeri de dating online and an object in motion will stay in motion with same speed and in same direction until acted upon by an external force.

Whenever a car abruptly halts due to collision with a second object, the acceleration of car reduces instantly in a very short time, described by the law of inertia [5]. The second object provides force that alters the velocity and direction of car and it stops moving in the direction it was following, or may bounces back depending on the momentum of car. In this entire course, there is no force to stop the driver and passenger from moving forward. This situation is actually where the role of seatbelt starts.

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As the individual keep on moving in the same way, the seatbelt grabs him protecting from moving in to the air. In the alternative case, when the passenger did not put on seatbelt a force will act upon them so as to slow their speed. Such force will come through the dashboard or wind shield because the person collides into it leading to a great deal of injury to the head and spinal cord that can be fatal [6].

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While it is important that people of all ages wear seat belts, it is especially important for teenagers because their crash rate is much higher than other age groups [1].

Seatbelts minimize the severity of injury caused by the road traffic collisions by keeping the wearers in their position and restricting them from hitting the frontal vehicle components like dash board or windshield.

Seatbelts also help in spreading the kinetic energy of the body that is the outcome of sudden deceleration. This energy is fragmented through the body skeleton [7]. In early times the Lap belts were used which hold the body at two points only figure 1. The movement of body in case of Lap Belt The belt acts as a fulcrum about which the body pivots causing major force directed toward the lumbar spine [8 10].

They do not provide protection to head and chest as the upper part of body can move forward to hit the windscreen or the steering wheel, the abdominal viscera can also be injured. Shoulder restraints were then introduced [11].

Filament yarns are used commonly to make the seatbelt webbing. In early times, cotton, flax and dating enneagram tip 4 were used for seat belt webbing. Modern seatbelt webbing consists of synthetic fibers like Nylon, Poly - propylene, Polyester, Dyneema as well as Kevlar. Two synthetic materials are mostly use, Nylon and polyester. Nylon is use to make the Lap belt and Polyester is used to manufacture the diagonal range.

In the late s and early s a research on narrow fabric was conducted dating elkington silver plate ascertain the preferred fiber. Static and dynamic loads are applied on polyester and nylon seatbelts in testing and results were related with the structure and shape of the seatbelt as well as the total deceleration rate of vehicle.

The polyester was considered superior due to high stiffness and low extensibility dating elkington silver plate. Seatbelt structures can be single layer or double layer and manufactured on needle looms. Plain weave was used in early days with the combination of cotton, wool or flax as material. To establish the mechanical performance of the webbing the testing is carried out following British Standard Institution BSI and the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE for different properties like; elongation at break, breaking strength, thickness and width, abrasion resistance at conditions which are most likely to resemble with the real life scenario.

Buckles and fittings, effect of different environmental conditions and temperatures, rubbing fastness and microbial resistance can also be tested [14]. The strength of a seatbelt is limited by the strength of its dating elkington silver plate parts.

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The weakest parts of the seatbelt are the joints between the webbing and other components, or those components themselves. A seatbelt is required to perform satisfactorily under conditions of very high strain rate. The strength of seatbelt webbing is usually determined by means of conventional slow strain rate so called static tension testing.

In addition AS E35 requires that the static strength of webbing connections be evaluated as part of a program of tests required for the purpose of examining the detrimental effects of sunlight and heat on the strength of webbing, thread and webbing connections. AS is implemented to test the tensile strength of webbing.

Direct determination of strength of webbing is a difficult matter chiefly because of the problem of gripping the webbing without including fracture of the test specimen in the grips. For a valid reading of strength, the fracture must occur outside the middle third of the between-grip length.

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Safety belts to keep the luggage in position known as trunk belts have also been developed. One of the modern inventions is the inflatable seat belts which is actually a combination of seat belt and air bag. Theses belts are stitched weekly in a folded envelope that will open up like a burst on inflation. By using such belts kinetic energy of passenger is distributed over a larger area, therefore load experienced by a passenger is small and passenger protected very effectively [15].

The performance of the vehicle seat belt can be enhanced by using belt positioning boosters; such boosters change the position of the belt with respect to the position of the wearer [16]. The airbag, jointly with the seat belts, must assure passengers safety in the case of a car accident. In the early s dating cuvinte în coreeană seatbelts were developed with the combination of air bags and legislated in Death and injury rates were greatly reduced by this combination [18].

There are 1. Also in some cases maxillofacial and ocular injuries were reported as a complication of airbags when seatbelts are not dating elkington silver plate [19, 20]. The development of modern seats with integrated seat belts also proved best performance during frontal impacts [21].

Despite the detailed research on seat belts and their significance, there is still a gap in the area of web weaving patterns. Some work is required that focus directly on different kind of weaving patterns to achieve optimum properties in the web for seat belts. For instance, mostly plain, twill and satin weaves are employed to the woven webs for seatbelts, and playing with the intersections of warp and weft in relation to the web properties is not deeply studied.

The aim of this study is to manufacture the multilayer woven webs in different weave designs to get the maximum 78 5 strength, keeping the areal density and thread density to minimum. The different weave designs were used because interlacement pattern directly affects the properties of the resulting fabric structure.

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The cross sectional view of these weaves is given in figure 2. The materials used for the production of seatbelts were multifilament polyamide and polyester yarn.

Two different linear densities were used for both the materials; i. The list of samples produced for the study is given in table 1. These structures were woven on the narrow needle weaving machine. It is specifically designed to produce the ribbons, tapes and the webbings less than 50 dating elkington silver plate in width. The weft insertion is continuous, and a needle is used to insert the weft yarn across the shed.

Due to the production of a small fabric width, the beam is not prepared rather warp yarns are directly supplied from the creel. It is a fluorocarbon finish having excellent repellency against oil, water and stains. The multilayer structures were dipped in the solution, squeezed at a nip pressure of 2 bars to remove excess of liquor and dried at C for 3 minutes. Five samples were tested along warp direction for each woven structure.

The average values of breaking strength with standard deviation are shown in figure 3. The width of all the seatbelt structures developed for this study was 40 mm.

If we have a look at the breaking force of best four samples, it is more than 3 kn, and therefore these seatbelts can be designated as class 3C. Breaking strength of seatbelts for the fabricated samples Firstly, it may be noted that woven structures constructed with polyester in warp direction have shown more breaking strength as compared to the structures constructed with polyamide in the warp. Therefore, the difference in the breaking strength of structures is due to the properties of material used.

It may be concluded that the material has a significant impact on the breaking strength of the seatbelt. There is also a variation in breaking strength among the structures produced with same material as warp.

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This difference has aroused from the difference in the interlacement pattern of each structure. It is evident from the figure 3 that the breaking strength of the structures produced in the matt weave is higher as compared to the other weaves. It can be best understood if we have a look at the cross sectional view of the weave structures figure 4.

In case of matt weave, the yarns are mostly in a straight position, as compared to the twill and plain-matt combination weaves, which have more number of interlacements and crimp. Also the yarns in matt weave are in the form of group.


When subjected to the axial loading, these straight segments will bear the load and the majority of filaments will contribute to the strength of the woven structure. In case of twill and plain-matt combination weaves, the crimped portion of yarn will not contribute to the load bearing. Ultimate result will be a low breaking strength value of these structures. The effect is further dating elkington silver plate in figure 6. The mean value of breaking elongation along with standard deviation of woven seatbelt structures are shown in the figure 5.

It is also intrinsic property of the material, i. The combined effect of weave design and material on the breaking dating elkington silver plate of woven seatbelt structures is shown in figure 6. It can be seen that the matt weave is stronger than plain-matt combination and twill weaves because the yarns are in pair and are orderly arranged. Cross sectional views of weave designs used for seatbelts Fig. Elongation of the seatbelt samples 80 7 Fig.

Breaking load versus fabric areal density GSM The effect is the same for all the materials polyester and polyamideeither used along warp or weft with a few exception only.

Although float length is same for twill and matt weave but in matt weave there are always two yarns present to bear the strength. As the structure is multilayer, the warp yarns are also used as stitching yarns to hold the layers together. The GSM wise comparison of breaking load is shown in figure 7. The general trend in the results is that structures produced with low GSM have less strength while structures produced in high GSM have more strength.

The trend is the same if we look at the results of seatbelt structures produced in the same material, i. Breaking strength, GSM and cost comparison of best four structures because Polyamide Nylon has less strength than the polyester yarn as discussed earlier. Taking into account the breaking strength, cost and the GSM of these structures, one best structure is to be decided.

A comparison graph of these four structures was plotted figure 8. The objective was to develop a low cost and light weight seatbelt with optimum mechanical dating elkington silver plate. The polyester used as warp for seatbelts gives more breaking strength as compared to polyamide Nylon. This is due to the inherent difference in the tenacity of both the fibers. The other factor contributing to the properties of seatbelts is the weave design.

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Structures produced in matt weave can bear more load before rupture as compared to twill and plain-matt combination weaves. The third important factor affecting the breaking strength of seatbelt is the areal density of fabric. Higher the areal density of seatbelt, higher is its breaking strength. All these properties were found optimum for the structure PNT, along with its cost.

Goldzweig, R. Levine, D. Schlundt, R. Bradley, G.